SIM Card Security Flaw Discovered

It took a long time but the humble SIM card that sits within your phone, along with at least seven billion others, has finally been hacked. Of the seven billion modern SIM cards in circulation, it is suspected that hundreds of millions (yes, hundreds of millions) are susceptible. What does this mean? The hacks allow a would-be attacker to infect your SIM with a virus that sends premium text messages, or records your phone calls — and, in some cases, access the secure, sandboxed details stored on your SIM by mobile payment apps, giving a hacker access to your bank and credit card details.

SIM cards are not merely a piece of laminated memory that stores the data that your phone needs to connect to a cellular network. In actuality, the SIM card in your phone is actually a small computer, with memory, a processor, and even an operating system. As you can see in the diagram below, there is a chip beneath those gold contacts, and on that chip there is a processor, ROM (firmware that stores the OS and SIM apps), EEPROM (which stores your phone book, settings, patches), and RAM (for use by the SIM’s OS and apps). In the photo below of a disassembled SIM card, you can clearly see that this is quite a complex computer chip.

 
 
 

Unfortunately, like any computer chip that runs an operating system and apps, a SIM card can be hacked. In this case, modern SIM cards run a very simple OS that loads up Java Card — a version of the Java virtual machine for smart cards (of which SIMs are a variety of). Java Card essentially runs small Java applets, and each applet is encapsulated and firewalled (sandboxed) by the Java VM, preventing sensitive data from leaking to other apps. Your phone interacts with these apps via the SIM Application Toolkit (STK) to display information on your screen, and to interact with the outside world. To load apps onto the SIM or to update them, hidden text messages are sent by the carrier, containing over-the-air (OTA) programming in binary form. These messages are signed with a cryptographic key, so that the SIM knows that these messages have originated from a trusted source.

Now, German security researcher Karsten Nohl has discovered a way of finding out that all-important cryptographic key. By sending his own OTA (over the air) SMS’s that aren’t signed with the correct key, he discovered that some phones pop up an error message that contains a cryptographic signature. Then, using rainbow tables (a list of plaintext keys/passwords and their encrypted equivalent), Nohl found he could discover the SIM card’s cryptographic key in about one minute. Once he had this key, he could send apps and viruses to the SIM card that can send premium text messages (racking up huge bills), re-route or record calls, collect location data — you name it, with access to the SIM, you can do just about anything.

And if that was not enough Nohl also found a separate bug in Java Card, essentially an out-of-bounds error (asking for the sixth item in a list when the list only contains five items), that can give an app/virus full root access to your SIM card — effectively breaking out of the sandboxing provided by the Java Card VM. With root access, these malicious apps could then obtain any data stored on your SIM, including your address book, or sensitive banking details stored by mobile payment apps.

According to Nohl, he estimates that out of 100 mobile phones, he could gain root access to the SIM card on 13 of them. SIM cards that use newer, stronger encryption (Triple DES), don’t appear to be susceptible to these attack vectors. Verizon and AT&T say they are not vulnerable to the vulnerabilities exposed by Nohl. In essence, mitigation of this attack comes down to the encryption standard used by your SIM card — so if you use a SIM that’s more than a few years old, you should probably get a new one. Most carriers will provide a new SIM if you ask and I would bet especially if you mentioned your knowledge of this new problem.

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More Java Flaws Discovered

During our technology training last month we talked about the ongoing problems with Java’s security. We also reviewed our options for dealing with this never ending problem. In fact I posted my recommendations in last month’s technology newsletter.

Well Java is back in the news and here is the scoop on Java’s latest flaw.

This latest flaw was first discovered by security firm FireEye, which says it has already been used “to attack multiple customers.” The company has found that the flaw can be exploited successfully in browsers that have Java v1.6 Update 41 or Java v1.7 Update 15 installed, the latest versions of Oracle’s plugin.

This confirms the flaw is indeed a 0-day. For those who don’t know, “0-day” or “zero-day” this refers to a security hole that has not been publicly disclosed yet, and so doesn’t have a patch available.
Oracle released Java SE 6 Update 41 and Java SE 7 Update 15 on February 19, addressing five security fixes. This was a scheduled release, but it succeeded a previous emergency update that addressed 50 (yes 50) vulnerabilities. In February, Java exploits have resulted in computers being compromised at multiple companies, including Apple, Facebook, and Microsoft.

Since the release of Java 7 Update 15, there has been at least one new vulnerability found in Oracle’s software. Unfortunately, it’s not clear if this exploit discovered by FireEye is related or not.
On February 25, Security Explorations, a Polish security firm responsible for identifying the majority of the latest Java security holes, sent Oracle yet another vulnerability notice, including proof of concept code for two additional flaws. Oracle began investigating the same day. On February 27, it declared the first alleged issue was not a vulnerability but confirmed the second issue.

Security Explorations disagreed with Oracle’s assessment regarding the first issue and provided Oracle with further examples as part of its argument. On February 28 (the same day FireEye discovered the latest version of Java was being exploited in the wild), Oracle said it would investigate the first issue again.

I recommend that regardless of what browser and operating system you are using, you should uninstall Java if you don’t need it. If you do need it, set your Java security settings to “High” so that it prompts you before loading an applet. Check out last month’s tech newsletter for more information.

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Java Security Alert – Update

Despite a software pitch for Java software released on Monday, January 14 by Oracle, the Department of Homeland Security warned millions of computer users about a threat “in the wild.” Oracle Released a Java Security Fix yesterday, January 15, 2013; But Homeland Security was still not pleased.

Security experts are warning users to disable Java on their computers to avoid being compromised by hackers. As a result, the department’s Computer Emergency Readiness Team advised PC users to “consider disabling Java in Web browsers, until adequate updates are available.”

Last week, the department warned of the vulnerability of Java, which is owned by Oracle, especially in the latest version 7 of the software. Oracle said it had released a new version, Update 11, to fix the problems. Meanwhile, Microsoft, said it had released a security advisory for its Internet Explorer browser versions 6, 7 and 8, which “could allow an attacker to execute arbitrary code if a user accesses a specially crafted website.”

The flaws are important because of the increasing use of websites for banking, financial orders and retail shopping, where credit card and bank account numbers are entered online. Hackers can buy packs that identify flaws, and then hack into websites or entire retail networks to intercept those numbers.

The Cyber Security task force also said that hackers can access ad networks that take consumers to these same sites or that post malware onto their devices. Oracle said its latest patches address the latest flaws and set the security level on Java to “high” in a bid to alert users that malware could be downloaded onto their machines.

My Java Advice

When you visit a website and Java wants to run you will normally be presented with a pop-up message asking for permission to run. If you are not 100% comfortable with the website you are visiting do not provide approval for Java to run.

How Do You Disable Java in Internet Explorer?

1. If you use Internet Explorer version 7 or above, open Internet Explorer and select Tools | Manage Add-ons then skip to Step 3. If you use an older version of Internet Explorer, open Internet Explorer and select Tools | Internet Options and continue to Step 2.

2. From the Internet Options window, click the Programs tab and select Manage Add-ons.

3. From the Add-ons windows, click once to select (highlight) Java Plug-in then click the Disable button. Click Close and OK to accept the change.

4. Alternatively, you can also click Tools | Internet Options | Advanced. If Java is installed in your browser, you will see a listing for Sun Java in the Internet Options menu. Just uncheck it to disable.

5. When you encounter a site that requires Java (for example, some small online games and calculators), you can re-enable Java easily by following the same steps above, this time selecting the enable option.

You can get more directions for many vesions of Windows & Browsers on Java’s website.

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